Quand l'approche design classique ne permet pas l'innovation radicale

Par Nicolas Minvielle mercredi 28 Mars 2012.
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Roberto Verganti et Donald Norman ont sorti récemment un article passionnant sur l'impact de la pratique design dans l'innovation. Pour rappel, Donald Norman est un des fondateurs de l'approche dite "centrée utilisateur" dans le design, qu'il a largement contribué à vulgariser. Or, au bout d'un certain nombre de recherches, il en est arrivé à a conclusion extrêmement intéressante que cette méthode ne permet pas de générer de l'innovation radicale.

La démonstration est assez imagée et commence avec le graphique suivant :

Si l'on imagine que l'entreprise est à un moment donnée au point A, le recours à des approches centrées utilisateurs, et notamment les sciences sociales lui permettront d'arriver par "tâtonnement" au point B. Jusqu'ici, pas de grosse remise en cause dans la mesure où cette remarque est largement traitée dans la littérature. Par contre, ce qui était jusqu'alors perçu comme "suffisamment innovant" pour justifier ces pratiques "human centered" sont remises ici en cause car elles ne permettent tout simplement pas de passer sur la "colline" de droite.

Ce passage de la colline de gauche à celle de droite ne pourrait se faire selon Norman qu'au travers d'une innovation radicale qui serait dans la quasi totalité des cas technologique. Une fois ceci intégré dans la pensée design, on se retrouverait alors au point C, et à devoir aller vers le point D avec de nouveau la pratique design "human centered".

Pour Norman, le nombre de cas où l'approche centrée utilisateur a réellement permis de changer de colline est quasi inexistant. Ce qui pourrait être une très mauvaise nouvelle donne à réfléchir lorsque l'on commence à injecter dans cette réflexion l'approche de Verganti. Dans son ouvrage publié aux Presses de Harvard, il souligne énormément le rôle critique de la recherche de sens ("meanings") dans le design et le fait que cette démarche est en mesure de générer de l'innovation radicale. Les exemples sont nombreux, mais il revient souvent sur celui de la Wii pour expliquer le lien entre innovation technologique et celle liée au sens:

Dans le cas de la Wii, le changement de sens proposé par Nintendo réside "simplement" dans l'application de nouvelles technologies au passage du "jeux pour experts" à "jeux pour tous". Ce changement de sens capitalise sur des innovations technologiques mais permet surtout une innovation radicale dans les usages et la relation à l'objet/service. Appliqué au champ de la recherche en design, on trouve alors ce que les auteurs appellent le "quadrangle de la recherche en design" :

Le dit "quadrangle " a l'intérêt non négligeable de poser le fait que l'approche "human centered" ne permet que de générer de l'innovation incrémentale, alors qu'une véritable approche recherche en design permettrait de générer de l'innovation radicale, notamment au travers de travaux sur de nouvelles interprétations de sens (ce qu'à priori, la démarche utilisateur ne permet pas...)

La démonstration est extrêmement intéressante et a des conséquences importantes, notamment en ce qui concerne l'organisation et la pratique du design au quotidien. A titre d'exemple, pour développer des innovations radicales, une manière de faire serait par exemple de forcer les designers à développer simultanément de nombreuses idées et prototypes. En divergent de manière simultanée et continue, il serait peut-être possible de trouver dès les phases amont de "nouvelles collines à grimper".


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article tres interessant, j'ajoute un bemol toute fois :
ce n'est pas tant le design qui est remis en cause mais les réticences aux changements tant interne à l'entreprise que clients... Beaucoup d'innovations (en particulier en France) sont retardées voir abandonnées parce que les clients bien qu'interessés veulent être rarement les premiers à en faire l'achat d'où la nécessité de trouver un panel réduit de clients qui assureront de convaincre les autres (méthode apple)... De l'autre côté, les managers ne souhaitant pas assumer les risques d'un echec commercial, ils préfère amener l'innovation par petits bouts...
Les innovations radicales qui ont bouleversé la vie des gens ont toujours un rapport avec leur liberté... Pour exemple, L'ordinateur personnel a été un echec retentissant jusqu'à ce que Windows les libère des langages informatiques...



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